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‘No flower, no hemp industry’: EIHA talks novel foods, questions THC limits in food, and fights for a ‘whole plant’ approach

The European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) defies CBD’s novel food status, makes the case for increasing the accepted THC level to 0.3% in the field, and advocates for the use and marketing of hemp’s leaves and flowers. FoodNavigator speaks to the lobby group’s managing director, Lorenza Romanese, to find out more.

 

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Pic: GettyImages/Aleksandr_Kravtsov
Pic: GettyImages/Aleksandr_Kravtsov

The European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) is a Brussels-based membership organisation representing hemp farmers, producers and traders across the bloc.

Believing that the European hemp sector has the potential to speed up the transition towards a zero-emission, bio-based and sustainable economy – in line with the European Green Deal – the lobby group has published The Hemp Manifesto​.

“Hemp is an impressive carbon sink: while the plant fixes CO₂ in the soil, thanks to its deep root system, its derived biomaterials further increase the overall capture balance of the crop,” ​writes EIHA of hemp’s sustainability benefits.

“One hectare of hemp can capture up to 13.4 tons of CO₂, making is as efficient as one hectare of tropical forest.”

Yet regulatory barriers in Europe are preventing the hemp sector from achieving its full potential, according to EIHA’s managing director, Lorenza Romanese.

“EIHA wrote the manifesto for policymakers,” ​she told FoodNavigator. “The Secretariat has sent it to the European Parliament, obtaining as a response around 15 meetings with MEPs to discuss our proposals.”

These include the restoration of the maximum delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) level from 0.2% to 0.3%; for operators to be able to harvest, produce, and market products from the whole plant; and perhaps most importantly for EIHA, that hemp and hemp preparations containing cannabinoid content not be considered a novel food.

cbd food aedkais
The hemp plant has been consumed for centuries, says EIHA ©GettyImages/aedkais

‘Hemp extracts have been consumed by people for decades’

Extracts of Cannabis Sativa L – including cannabidiol (CBD) – was added to the Novel Foods Catalogue in January 2019.

This means that products containing hemp extracts require pre-market authorisation from the European Food Standards Agency (EFSA), which is dependent on the completion of a full scientific dossier demonstrating safety.

As per the EU definition, a Novel Food is a food that has not been consumed to a significant degree prior to 1997. On this point, EIHA does not agree.

According to the lobby group, historic evidence confirms that hemp extracts rich in cannabinoids, including CBD, were part of our diet for many centuries. As such, EIHA maintains that whole-plant hemp extracts are not novel foods.

“We are fully engaged on the novel food issue,” ​Romanese told this publication. Indeed, EIHA is putting together a novel food application for EFSA and the UK’s Food Standards Agency (FSA), to support its 300-plus members.

“We have a lot of food companies at EIHA [66% of which are SMEs], if we don’t submit a joint novel food application for the whole sector, small- and medium-sized businesses will be particularly at risk.”

A ‘whole plant’ approach

EIHA’s stance on CBD’s inclusion on the Novel Foods register feeds into its position on using all elements of the hemp plant.

As of January 2019, there is ‘uncertainty about the upper part of the plant’, said Romanese, referencing the Commission and Member States’ decision concerning the plant’s flower, leaves, and extract.

“For me, the beauty of hemp is in the stalks, is in the leaves, and probably in the roots of hemp [as well]. The beauty of hemp is taking the plant as a whole – that is the key economic model Europe should perform.”

However, some Member States still forbid the use and marketing of leaves and flowers. “Giving operators the possibility to market all parts of the plant would reduce waste and maximise the profitability of the crop. This could result in higher incomes for farmers and other operators along the supply chain,” ​noted EIHA in the manifesto.

cbd LARISA SHPINEVA
The hemp plant has been consumed for centuries, says EIHA ©GettyImages/LARISA SHPINEVA

For the lobby group, the market is jeopardised because there is ‘no harmonisation at the Member State level’.

Romanese admitted she is perplexed by Belgium’s approach concerning the dried hemp flower (cannabis light). “Smoking the dried flower is not novel, but if you take the same part of the plant, compress it, and extract one drop of CBD, then that is considered a novel food.”

EIHA is campaigning for the use of the whole plant, without which, the sector could be compromised. “No flower, no hemp industry,” ​she reiterated.

The increasing maximum THC level in the field

Listed amongst EIHA’s proposals to the European Commission is the restoration of the maximum THC level to 0.3% (as had previously been the case in the EU), up from the current 0.2% limit. THC is the main psychoactive component of cannabis.

And now, while the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) is under consultation by the European Council, is the time to push this message, according to EIHA.

As per the original Commission proposal on CAP Strategic Plans, the maximum THC content must be below 0.2%. Yet this limit across Europe restricts the choice of varieties for farmers, argues the trade association, meaning that the European hemp industry is at a competitive disadvantage against producers in other markets – where the maximum THC level can range from 0.3% to 1.0%.

Switzerland and Canada are two such countries with higher THC limits in the field. “We need to look at other examples,” ​Romanese told this publication. “Switzerland and Canada plant higher varieties and both have less strict controls on the field compared to EU farmers – in Europe, one-third of the field is taken out for the controls, while in Canada is it enough to examine the seeds.”  

Ultimately, EIHA believes this modification would help align the sector with international standards and allow farmers to start breeding new and more adapted varieties – to satisfy both their own and consumers’, needs.

Source: Food Navigator

UK Demand For CBD Products Soars Amid Covid-19 Pandemic

The 10 best CBD gummies to buy this year | VentureBeat

While Covid-19 continues to devastate the global economy, there are some businesses for which the pandemic has created opportunities rather than problems.

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One good example is the UK’s nascent market for cannabidiol (CBD) products, where entrepreneurs and small businesses report soaring demand since the crisis began.

Research published today by Alphagreen.io, the UK’s largest marketplace for certified CBD products, suggests that more than 8 million Britons are now buying CBD products, with spending exceeding £150m in the first four months of 2020 alone. That puts the market on target to achieve revenues of £450m over the year as a whole, which would represent 50% growth compared to 2019.

Alphagreen.io CEO Alexej Pikovsky explains that the marketplace commissioned the research after noticing a sharp spike in demand for CBD products in the UK from the beginning of March onwards, as the Covid-19 crisis began to bite. He said: “The key here is that with people feeling anxious, having trouble sleeping and, in some cases, feeling let down by the traditional health system, they have looked for alternatives.”

Alphagreen.io’s study, based on a survey of 5,000 adults, found that 8.4 million Britons had either bought CBD products this year or intended to do so. Some 42% of purchasers are focused primarily on relieving or managing pain, with 21% seeking to tackle their insomnia, and 19% hoping to address anxiety. The study also showed that 38% of purchasers were taking CBD products alongside conventional medicines.

Dr Dani Gordon, a specialist in medicinal cannabis and CBD products, said the research suggested the uptick in demand was part of a broader trend. “People are increasingly turning to more natural health and wellness solutions to add to their self-care routines,” she said. “Patients are looking towards natural remedies to mitigate and soothe symptoms of common conditions such as anxiety, as well as other mental and physical health concerns.”

One interesting question is whether the increased interest in CBD products in the UK will endure beyond the current crisis. Certainly, much of the demand in the marketplace is relatively recent – Alphagreen.io’s research suggests 53% of purchasers made their first purchase in the last 12 months.

Pikovsky believes the increased demand will be sustained, as Britons become better informed about CBD products and the market matures. He launched Alphagreen.io last year to provide a single portal for purchasers in what is a highly-fragmented marketplace where consumers aren’t always sure which brands to trust. The marketplace requires providers to supply certified data on their products in order to maintain their listings.

Online sales are an important part of the story. In the marketplace’s survey, 38% said they bought their CBD products online, compared to 14% who purchased from health shops and 13% who sourced products from pharmacies.

However, it will take time for more people to feel comfortable and knowledgeable about the marketplace, with the research showing that older consumers are much more sceptical about the reliability of CBD products. There is also confusion about the differences between CBD products, which are typically available over-the-counter, and medicinal cannabis, which requires a prescription.

Nevertheless, one effect of the Covid-19 crisis does appear to be a surge in demand in the UK’s CBD market, helped by the fact that many people have more time to research what is available. Demand for other health products, including vitamin supplements, also appears to be increasing rapidly.

Source: Forbes

Cannabis companies offer compassion programs to offset CBD costs

As a cannabis patient myself, I want to highlight CBD brands out there who go above and beyond to help customers through compassionate care programs. These programs offer significant discounts on CBD products for patients who are disabled or have chronic illnesses.

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Below you’ll find a list of brands that offer compassionate care programs along with a few of their best products geared toward medical patients. Check it out and revel in the generosity that’s at the heart of this industry.

Bluebird Botanicals Assistance Programs

One trusted name in CBD is Bluebird Botanicals. Bluebird offers a wide range of CBD products including tinctures, capsules, isolates, and topicals. They carry both broad-spectrum and isolate options.

Products are GMP and US Hemp Authority Certified, are glyphosate-free and are grown using regenerative agriculture methods. You can also browse their site for full third-party lab test results by lot number, ensuring you always know exactly what’s going into your product.

Bluebird Botanicals’ assistance program has been around since 2015. It offers 20% off products for qualifying participants. Those who qualify include people with long-term disabilities, low-income families, teachers, students, civil servants, and veterans.

 

“Our founder and CEO’s wife, Jessica Beatty, is responsible for the inspiration behind the assistance program. She had been working as a customer service representative and had frequent phone conversations with customers very much in need of CBD. She was so moved and often brought to tears by these customers’ emotional stories that she knew Bluebird needed to formalize an assistance program to help groups like veterans, low-income families, and those with long-term disabilities afford,” says Grace Kaucic, Senior Communications Manager at Bluebird.

The quality of the CBD you get from Bluebird is among the best I’ve found. I’m a big fan of their Concentrated Hemp Extracts as they deliver large doses of full-spectrum CBD in each dropper—25 mg per ml, to be exact. They also have a THC-free CBD oil that uses organic fractionated coconut oil (MCT) as the carrier oil. Two droppers of the full spectrum oil had me feeling pain-free and relaxed for the remainder of my day.

RopaNa Compassionate Care Program

RopaNa is a Vermont-based brand devoted to addressing the need for knowledge, quality, and transparency in the CBD industry. It’s a pretty fitting mission considering the term “Ropa Na” is Sanskrit for “to heal one’s self.”

The founders of RopaNa, Andrew and Rachael Switz are committed to their customers’ health. Andrew holds a degree in Horticultural Sciences while Rachael has a certification from the American School of Clinical Pathology in Molecular Biology. These backgrounds inspired the two to produce CBD oils made from organic hemp-extracted using organic ethanol. Full-spectrum and isolate products are available, with third-party lab results posted on the site for easy access.

RopaNa’s compassion care program offers a 35% discount to patients who suffer from chronic illnesses or disabilities. The compassion program is also extended to other groups like caretakers and non-profits.

I’m a huge fan of RopaNa’s Entourage Full Spectrum Nectar tincture. It not only uses organic, ethanol extracted hemp with MCT oil but also features other minor cannabinoids. The Nectar tincture, for instance, contains CBD as well as CBG, CBN, and CBC. It’s the most effective hemp tincture I’ve tried for both pains and alleviating a stressed, anxious mood.

Looking for something with no trace of THC? Opt for their Nectar CBD isolate tincture or for their, CBD Goddess Rub topical cream.

Lazarus Naturals’ CBD Assistance Program

Based in Portland, OR, Lazarus Naturals is another brand committed to improving access to CBD for all. They were also one of the few brands I tested whose products were all consistent in terms of quality. Everything I tried here not only worked, but it worked well, including capsules which don’t normally do the trick for me.

Lazarus Naturals’ assistance program is one of the most generous out there, offering discounts between 40-60% depending on your needs. Those who qualify include customers on long-term disability, low-income citizens, and veterans.

That being said, there are a lot of great products—both full-spectrum and isolate options—to choose from. Lazarus has CBD tinctures, capsules, topicals, oils to cook with, and full-spectrum CBD RSO. My top picks here were the aforementioned CBD RSO and full-spectrum CBD capsules (25 mg). The capsules are super easy to slip into a purse or pocket for on-the-go relief whenever you need it.

Zion Medicinals Compassionate Care Hemp Oil Program

Zion Medicinals was formed by Brian Caruso, a doctor of chiropractic medicine, and his wife, Jess, who suffers from Lyme disease. The two worked together to maximize the therapeutic properties of hemp, a struggle which inspired the creation of their hemp oil products.

Zion Medicinals relies on ethanol extraction instead of CO2. Zion also uses spagyric processing with their oils which, according to their website, is meant to reintroduce additional salts, minerals, oils, and acids.

The end result is a line of hemp oils that are full-spectrum and made from single-sourced Colorado organic hemp. They’re one of the few hemp oils I tested that was able to make a dent in my neuropathic pain.

Zion’s compassionate care program enrols patients in a program which ships CBD to them on a regular monthly basis. Qualified patients who enrol are then eligible for 40% off their monthly shipment.

“This program is our way of paying it forward and helping those in the late stages of their life who want some relief naturally,” says Caruso.

cbdMD Disability Discount

The folks over at cbdMD also have their own discount available for customers with disabilities. Those who qualify are eligible to receive 40% off cbdMD products. cbdMD also offers a 30% discount for veterans.

You can find just about every CBD product type on the site, ranging from tinctures to gummies, bath bombs, topicals, and beyond.

My favourite cbdMD products are the CBD PM oil for sleep and the CBD freeze roller. The tincture is broad-spectrum made from the US, non-GMO grown hemp and has a certificate of analysis (CoA) available on the site. It also contains melatonin to help put you to sleep, and by god is it effective. I actually managed to sleep throughout the entire night without waking up once—a miracle for me. The roller was equally as effective: It began to spread and relieve tired, sore muscles almost immediately.

CanniMed Compassionate Pricing (Canada)

CanniMed is a Canadian medical cannabis producer that was recently purchased by Aurora. They have a wide range of medical cannabis products available including dried flower, vapes, capsules, and topicals. One of their most popular and beloved items is their 1:20 CanniMed CBD oil. Many patients use it for pain relief, anxiety, and focus.

The compassionate pricing program allows qualifying customers to receive a 25% price reduction on all medical cannabis products. Customers must be living on disability or must be receiving aid from government subsidy programs to qualify.

Tilray Compassionate Pricing (Canada)

Canadian monolith Tilray also provides a compassionate pricing program, which is centred around one product: Tilray 2:100 CBD oil. The oil itself is as medicinal as it gets; recent research shows that it’s proven to be effective for children with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) due to Dravet Syndrome.

Pediatric and palliative patients are eligible to receive a 25% discount on the 2:100 CBD Oil if they qualify. Tilray also has a compassionate pricing discount of 25% geared towards low-income customers. It’s heartening to know even patients without insurance may still qualify for the program.

Editor’s note: Tilray and Leafly, now independent companies, were both previously owned by Privateer Holdings.

Source: Leafly 

Navigating COVID-19 in the Cannabis industry in the UK

Navigating COVID-19 in the Cannabis industry in the UK | Cannabis ...

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There is no doubt all industries are feeling the effects of the coronavirus pandemic; however, cannabis businesses face a unique set of challenges.

Business operations, consumer behaviour and financials will be analysed more than ever as businesses seek to position themselves during the pandemic and beyond when lockdowns will eventually be alleviated. As Benjamin Franklin said, “Out of adversity comes opportunity.” COVID-19 is an opportunity for cannabis firms to restructure their business model from a direct, consumer, wholesale and partnership level; eradicate inefficiencies and reassess launch or expansion plans.

Like many other sectors, the cannabis market should still expect to lose revenue due to factors like store closures, disrupted supply chains and restricted transport.

The outlook may seem bleak, but it’s not all doom and gloom when looking at the CBD and medical cannabis markets in more detail.

CBD consumption  

With social distancing measures still in place, cannabis firms which offer an online sales platform are seeing a surge in business. During COVID-19, there has been a greater focus on staying healthy and boosting immune systems which are driving consumers to a variety of health-focused products including CBD.

The structure of cannabidiol (CBD), one of 400 active compounds found in cannabis.

Fortunately, many of the physical retailers who stock CBD products in the UK have been permitted to stay open, despite a nation-wide lockdown, so some consumers are bulk buying their usual products while others are turning to e-commerce and delivery services. This demonstrates how quickly some firms have adapted to keep their businesses afloat.

However, border restrictions have tightened and as many supplies and logistics workers remain in quarantine, the CBD market could see challenges in maintaining supply lines as the pandemic continues.

This comes in addition to CBD firms working to process a Novel Food Application and fulfil the necessary requirements by March 31, 2021. Despite lobbying from the Cannabis Trades Association (CTA) and despite the impact the global pandemic is having on the sector, the deadline has not been extended.

CBD businesses need to capitalise on the opportunities arising during this downturn; be creative and pin-point ways to keep CBD consumers engaged. By building on their brand and refreshing where necessary, they can attract consumers and develop a loyal customer base. Sustaining a strong online presence and enhancing social media and marketing strategies can lead to an increase in online sales. The brands which can leverage awareness and embody trustworthiness will be the winners.

CBD cannot cure COVID-19

As the epidemic continues into May, there has been no shortage of scammers attempting to try and short-change a fearful, confused population. Unfortunately, the cannabis industry has seen some shameful claims by CBD and hemp companies, notably in the US, who claimed their products could cure or fight off the symptoms of COVID-19.

CBD has been positioned as having several positive health effects by manufacturers and retailers – most notably in reducing pain and inflammation, decreasing anxiety and helping sleep – which may be on the rise within this unsettling environment.

The International Association for Cannabinoid Medicine (IACM), issued a statement on the coronavirus pandemic saying, “there is no evidence that individual cannabinoids or cannabis preparations protect against infection … or could be used to treat COVID-19.” Trials have been launched in Israel to explore whether CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties can be an effective COVID-19 treatment. Until this has been clinically proven, cannabis firms must not make unsupported claims.

Medical Cannabis

During COVID-19, health systems are under unprecedented pressure, which is impacting patient access to all medical treatments, including cannabis.

The medical cannabis industry has swiftly adapted to these challenges by rolling out video consultations and other online consultation services to enhance patient access.

While the Home Office activity for licencing will be limited during this time, companies must work with regulators to keep supply lines open, so that those in need receive their medicine without relying on black-market activity.  On April 29, the government published emergency legislation to allow patients to continue accessing controlled drugs for the duration of the epidemic, from pharmacies, without a prescription. This only applies to patients with ongoing NHS treatment, so there is still a long way to go, as private cannabis clinics must fill the gap in the meantime.

The global pandemic has impacted us all, and many patients are concerned about how they will access vital services. Many patients receiving medical cannabis have underlying health conditions which make them more susceptible to contracting COVID-19 and those with chronic neurologic conditions like epilepsy are in danger of suffering potential side effects.

Several of the qualities needed to survive the coronavirus pandemic – awareness, self-containment and support – are basic skill sets to carers. Beyond the pandemic, policy shifts, investment and education are needed to lift the barriers to medical cannabis access, and this will require all businesses operating in the cannabis industry to drive change.

2020 is a defining year for cannabis 

The cannabis industry is resilient against socio-economic, political and policy drivers- this we’ve seen time and time again. Now we must create an even stronger UK industry, where products are safely and readily available to those who need them. As the cannabis market matures and the competition things out, only quality cannabis products and services will be in play. Those that can innovate their approach to production, distribution and consumption during the pandemic can be the catalyst for long-lasting changes for the cannabis industry to operate for the better.

Source: Cannabis Industry Journal

CBD Article – Tim Byrne

If you see creating capital value through building a strong distribution network, you need to ask what does that mean?

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Business is like gardening if you do not keep on top of things they get out of control. Its great planting new plants and seeds in the ground that you have prepared but unless you continue to weed and prune, it all becomes overgrown and ultimately requires a complete re-start.

As horrendous as is it perhaps the current pandemic gives us an opportunity to apply the same principle to our businesses. Many in the space have seen successful and seen rapid growth. While I am sure that many have continued to see growth over their internet sales longer terms plans have been severely disrupted.

I believe this time gives a real opportunity to secure, shape and review where the market is, to revisit and refresh strategy and make plans for the other side of the crisis.

As we have said in previous blogs there remain significant challenges in the market, oversupply in certain sectors, continued uncertainty about the shape and progress of regulation and legislation and the lurking power of the ‘big boys’ with their deep pockets and know-how.

The starting point must be what was your original goal? Was it to build a business to sell (or the one that always makes me laugh ‘to float’) for capital gain or to make some cash from sales? If the former you will only make capital if you have something worthwhile to sell, this might be via innovation or strong distribution. Properly protected innovation creates capital worth.

If you see creating capital value through building a strong distribution network, you need to ask what does that mean? Strength in one channel and in one region is unlikely to attract the buyer of your business that you want. Secondly is it realistic to think that you can build strong distribution without strong brands? Think about ‘strong distribution’, it does not have to mean big and broad, it could be narrow and niche with hidden growth.

If your aim is simply to make a few ‘bob’ through sales the window of opportunity continues to exist but is narrowing. The market is overcrowded with wild claims about purity and quality, so the consumer has no idea which products to choose. The winners will be those that have trusted Brands because consumers believe the marketing. I guess that’s why so many companies are trying to provide products for white label enabling them to ride on the back of established brands. The cautionary note is that as a supplier of ingredients with oversupply what are the long-term prospects of making money?  

Having spent time reviewing and honing your strategy, you next need to review your team. With lots of furloughing and redundancy, what team do you need to meet your business goals? I suggest that you look at those businesses that have already achieved some success, their teams are not simply teams of salespeople but teams of sales, marketing, scientists, regulators and innovators. Is your team the right one to deliver your strategy?

One last thought. We currently live in a world, that quite rightly talks about those on the front-line of fighting this dreaded virus, but life will return to normal, and the front line will quickly become the economy. With a global decline in GDP’s and output as business people, we must play our part and convert the potential of this market into real profits, wealth and jobs.

By Tim Byrne, Chairman The Ginger Group.

The best cure: which drugs may treat Coronavirus

One of the most prevalent thoughts about the novel coronavirus is that it will make us all follow the healthy lifestyle and kick any harmful addictions, such as quitting smoking.

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One of the most prevalent thoughts about the novel coronavirus is that it will make us all follow the healthy lifestyle and kick any harmful addictions, such as quitting smoking. There might be some truth to these assumptions as a strong immune system may be helpful not to catch the virus that easily or experience it in a mild form. In the time when there is no universal treatment or an approved vaccine, people rely on whatever is possible.

However, worldwide scientists work on finding the cure against the novel coronavirus. So far, there are two major approaches: test the currently available on the market drugs and supplements and see if any will fight off the virus and create the new vaccine. So stop worrying. In this article, we will consider a bunch of the methods and approaches towards coronavirus treatment on the scientific radar.

What is COVID-19?

 

Coronavirus, known as COVID-19, is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Younger people tend to develop mild or moderate respiratory illness and don’t require special treatment. Older people and those who have associated medical conditions such as heart diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and HIV are more likely to experience more severe illness. COVID-19 in children is relatively rare and mild, and a minimal amount of them have developed severe or critical symptoms.

Mostly, the virus spreads via airborne droplets from the nose or mouth when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Therefore, any unprotected contact is enough to transmit the virus.

The COVID-19 virus affects people in different ways, depending on their age and health condition.

According to the WHO, the most reported symptoms include:

  • fever
  • exhaustion
  • dry cough

Other symptoms may include:

  • shortness of breath

People who develop mild symptoms but otherwise healthy should self-isolate and contact a healthcare provider or a COVID-19 information line to get advice. People who suffer from fever, dry cough, difficulty breathing or any other worsening of symptoms should contact their doctor for medical attention.

The best approach is to stay away from the invalid rumours, get information from the valid resources such as WHO and not to fall into panic. However, there are some other tips that help to prevent and slow down the virus transmission.

How to prevent the spread of the disease?

 

As long as there is no chance to hide into a glass dome and avoid contact with the infection, try to follow these simple hygiene recommendations. To prevent infection and to slow down the transmission of the disease, do the following:

  • Wash your hands with water and soap, or clean them with a sanitiser regularly.

So far, there are no vaccines or specific medications recommended to prevent or treat COVID-19. Infected people receive appropriate care to relieve and treat symptoms, and those with severe illness get supportive care. Many people who had the misfortune to catch the virus can recover and eliminate it from their bodies. Unfortunately, vaccines against pneumonia, such as a pneumococcal vaccine, do not protect against the novel coronavirus.

Although these vaccines are not effective against the novel virus, vaccination against respiratory illnesses is recommended to protect your health.

Antibiotics also don’t work against viruses and should not be used for prevention or treatment. However, people hospitalised for the 2019-nCoV may receive antibiotics due to bacterial co-infection.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is new and differs from currently known viruses; therefore, it needs its own vaccine. Numerous ongoing clinical trials keep evaluating potential treatments for the novel disease.

Potential AntiCovid Drugs and Supplements

 

Researches focus on two approaches to the treatment of the novel coronavirus. The first one is using the drugs, supplements and treatment methods currently available on the market that happen to provide antiviral effects. Another one is creating the vaccine, which may take a long time and money to happen.

Let’s see what drugs are currently considered or developed by researchers.

Chloroquine

Chloroquine and less toxic hydroxychloroquine are used for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Due to their ability to reduce immune activity, these drugs are also used to treat autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In March 2020 the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorisation that allows patients with COVID-19 to be treated using drugs with no clear evidence of their efficacy, approving limited emergency use for both drugs as a treatment for COVID-19. The medicines have quickly gotten into the media spotlight and were mentioned even by the President of the United States, Donald Trump. However, the European drugs regulator has claimed that while studies on both drugs are ongoing in COVID-19, they must not be used outside authorised uses. The use in clinical trials or nationally agreed protocols is allowed.

Indeed, Chloroquine has shown some antiviral effects. It is able to change the pH of the parts in which viruses get into the cell, hindering the virus’ ability to reproduce. A 2020 study by Chinese scientists with cultured cells infected by SARS-CoV-2 has shown that chloroquine administration may keep the virus from spreading.

The International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents Meanwhile has published the results of a small-scale study evaluating the effectiveness of antimalarial drugs, such as Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19. The combination of hydroxychloroquine and an antibiotic called azithromycin helped to reduce both the duration and symptoms of COVID-19.

Even though Chloroquine has been used for a long time as an antimalarial drug, it may cause severe side effects, including death, if taken incorrectly. Even if taken as intended, the medication can cause stomach distress or permanent damage to a vision. Healthcare providers are warned that the optimal dosing of the drug and duration of treatment for COVID-19 are unknown and instructed to control heart activity concerning potential drugs’ side effects.

The promising results of studies with Chloroquine are considered the very first step that should lead to more complex clinical studies and competing peer studies to prove its effectiveness. Multiple clinical trials by government agencies and academic institutions are ongoing. Study results published in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents has found that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and antibiotic azithromycin (brand names Zithromax or Azithrocin) might be effective in treating the COVID-19 coronavirus and shortening the duration of the virus in patients.

Remdesivir

Remdesivir is an antiviral drug developed by Gilead Sciences. Remdesivir is an analogue of adenosine; therefore, it can incorporate into emerging viral RNA chains and cause their premature termination. Remdesivir was used as a treatment for Ebola virus disease, Marburg virus infections, and single-stranded RNA viruses, including coronaviruses (including MERS and SARS viruses).

Remdesivir can interfere with the RNA, needed for virus replication. In the body, it is metabolised into a nucleotide analogue that is similar to adenosine, the RNA essential building block. It weakens the ability of the virus to produce its new RNA copies by suppressing an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. That is especially effective against viruses that only use RNA as their genetic material, without the DNA stage. A 2020 study with the use of a clinical isolate of 2019-nCoV in vitro, has shown that Remdesivir might inhibit virus infection efficiently in a human cell line. Therefore, Remdesivir can act as a broad-spectrum antiviral, which is useful for diseases caused by RNA viruses such as cold, influenza, and Covid-19.

Gilead Sciences has announced clinical trials with plans to enrol up to 1000 patients and has also made the drug available for compassionate use in emergency cases. The European Union’s health regulator has not approved Remdesivir for COVID-19 but recommended it for compassionate use, including its use for clinical trials.

Favilavir (Avigan, Favipiravir)

Favilavir is an antiviral drug developed by Toyama Chemical, Fujifilm group of Japan, that has activity against RNA viruses. In animal studies, it has shown an effect against influenza viruses, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Favilavir can selectively inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, an enzyme that activates the replication of RNA from an RNA template. It may also generate lethal RNA transversion mutations, creating a nonviable viral phenotype. In practical terms, it means that drugs may prevent patients with low or moderate viral load from becoming sicker.

In February 2020 regulatory officials in China approved Favilavir as an investigational therapy for the use as a treatment for the COVID-19. The approval was based on the efficacy of the medicine against the infectious disease in clinical tests with 70 patients conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong province. However, some minor effects had also been recorded. At present, the generic version of Faviliavir was being mass-produced in China and promoted with the label Avigan. However, further work on pharmacy and clinical pharmacology research is required. Despite the positive results of the clinical trials and mass production of the Favilavir, it should be approved by the FDA to be considered as an effective treatment medicine for coronavirus. Japan’s government is also waiting on the results of their own clinical trials before producing the drug on a mass scale domestically.

Lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra)

Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), known under the brand name Kaletra and others, is a medication for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. The drug was created by Abbott Laboratories (now Abbvie). It is generally used with other antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 14 days and older. Ritonavir enhances the effect of lopinavir, and the combination of two drugs significantly reduces the morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV / AIDS. LPV/r has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and in Europe.

A 2004 study has shown that LPV/r might be a promising treatment optionfor COVID-19. In essence, patients treated with these drugs in combination with ribavirin had a decreasing viral load and rising peripheral lymphocyte count. Countries heavily affected by COVID-19, such as Italy, were recommended the drug combination for the novel coronavirus treatment.

There are numerous ongoing trials, evaluating the lopinavir-ritonavir effect on COVID-19. Two trials examined how the drug’s combination could act against pneumonia induced by COVID-19. An ongoing randomised controlled trial from Tongji Hospital of lopinavir-ritonavir is testing abidol hydrochloride, oseltamivir and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of viral pneumonia. Another study conducted in South Korea is investigating whether hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir can reduce the viral load from a respiratory specimen in COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms. The World Health Organization is conducting a multi-centre, adaptive, randomised, open clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir and standard of care in adult patients with COVID-19. However, a clinical trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine has shown that treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir brought no difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement in patients with cases of severe COVID-19.

Therefore, the current clinical trial in South Korea and the Tongji Hospital are expected to prove or refute the effectiveness of LPV/r against COVID-19.

The most common adverse effects of lopinavir/ritonavir are diarrhoea and nausea. Other common adverse effects include asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, vomiting, and rash. People with structural heart diseases, preexisting conduction system abnormalities, cardiomyopathies or ischaemic heart disease should use these drugs with caution.

Tocilizumab (Actemra)

Tocilizumab is an immunosuppressive drug, developed by Hoffmann–La Roche and Chugai and mostly used for the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is sold under the trade names Actemra and RoActemra.

A 2020 research from China has shown that Tocilizumab may be an effective treatment for patients diagnosed as severe or critical COVID-19. Within a few days, the treatment caused positive results: temperature and oxygen intake lowering, lung lesion opacity absorption, normalisation of lymphocytes and C-reactive protein level. No significant reactions were observed.

Genentech from the Roche Group and the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority have launched a randomised, controlled trial (COVACTA) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous Actemra (Tocilizumab) and care standards in adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Actemra (Tocilizumab) has been approved in China for the treatment of patients with the COVID-19, who have also developed severe lung damage and have high levels of IL-6 in the blood. The studies have suggested that an elevated level of IL-6, a biomarker for inflammation and high-level immune response, may be lethal for people with community-acquired pneumonia.

The mechanism of Tocilizumab includes an interruption of the process of ‘cytokine release syndrome’ (CRS), a complication in the form of severe inflammatory response.

However, Actemra is not currently approved for this use by the FDA. The most frequent adverse effects observed in clinical trials are upper respiratory tract infections, common cold, headache, high blood pressure and total cholesterol levels.

REGN3048–3051 and Kevzara

REGN3048–3051 is the combination of neutralising monoclonal antibodies REGN3048 and REGN3051 developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. First-in-human clinical trial supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) researches if it may act effectively against coronavirus infection. The tolerability and safety of this drug will be tested in 48 patients. The antibodies of the drug can bind to S-protein of MERS coronavirus. The studies on mice in the case of MERS lead to the potent neutralisation of the MERS in blood and lowered viral loads in the lungs.

Pharmaceutical companies Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Sanofi SA have also announced plans to launch clinical trials on their arthritis drug Sarilumab (trade name Kevzara) in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. It can inhibit interleukin-6 (IL-6), which causes an overactive inflammatory response in the lungs of infected patients.

EIDD-2801

EIDD-2801 is a broad-spectrum oral antiviral. It can interfere with the virus to replicate once it infects a cell, which makes it similar to remdesivir, a drug currently being studied in COVID-19 patients. Both drugs can mimic ribonucleosides — the components of RNA molecules — causing errors when the drugs get into viral RNA during replication and preventing the virus spread. Researchers have shown that EIDD-2801 may be used as either a prophylactic or a therapeutic medicine for SARS-CoV-2. The drug has also shown efficacy against other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

EIDD-2801 has one advantage over Remdesivir: it can be used as a pill, while Remdesivir must be given intravenously. It means that it can be administered outside of a clinical setting for prophylaxis.

EIDD-2801 was first tested in cells cultured in the laboratory. When those tests appeared to be encouraging, the scientists gave the drug to mice infected with coronaviruses. A paper describing the study results was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. When EIDD-2801 was used as a prophylactic, it could prevent severe lung damage, reduce the viral load and weight loss in infected mice if given from 12 to 48 hours after the infection began.

Here is an exciting aspect of the drug: viruses that can carry Remdesivir resistance mutations happen to be more susceptible to EIDD-1931 and vice versa. It means that both drugs may be combined to improve efficacy and prevent resistance.

Clinical studies of the drug in humans were expected to begin in spring 2020. If EIDD-2801 proves to be effective, it may be used not only for the COVID-19 pandemic but also in managing other coronavirus outbreaks in future.

Anakinra (Kineret)

Anakinra is a biopharmaceutical drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is a recombinant and modified type of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein, marketed by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum.

Studies have shown that patients with severe COVID-19 may have cytokine storm syndrome, an excessive immune response. Usually, COVID-19 is treated with supportive measures. The most often cause of mortality and respiratory failure is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The disorder named sHLH comprises hyperinflammatory syndromes and is defined by a “cytokine storm” with multiorgan failure. This process increases the number of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18, as well as interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor. The disease is characterised by continuous high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, central nervous system manifestations, and thrombocytopenia.

In adults, sHLH is generally caused by viral infections. Pulmonary involvement, such as ARDS, occurs in approximately half of all patients.

Studies have shown that Anakinra may calm the cytokine storm, meaning its administration may be useful for patients with COVID-19. The most common side effects following Anakinra use include injection site reactions, headaches, and higher levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Galidesivir

Galidesivir, also known as BCX4430 and Immucillin-A, is an antiviral drug, an analogue of adenosine. The drug was developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals to treat hepatitis C but then developed as a potential treatment for Ebola and Marburg virus diseases, and Yellow fever. Galidesivir shows broad-spectrum antiviral effect against RNA viruses, such as bunyaviruses, paramyxoviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, coronaviruses, and phleboviruses. It acts as a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor and disrupts the viral replication.

So far, Galidesivir is being evaluated for yellow fever in a Phase II trialaccording to the contracts with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

SNG001

SNG001 includes naturally occurring IFN-β, administered through a nebuliser. It was initially produced to prevent severe lower respiratory tract infections in the lungs that were caused by cold and flu to reduce the severity of the infection caused by the coronavirus.

The human body can produce its own interferon-beta to alleviate inflammation caused by the body’s immune response. Scientific research shows that IFN-β deficiency in the lungs might explain the high susceptibility of vulnerable patient groups who have developed severe lung disease during viral infections. SNG001 may provide IFN-β directly to the lungs, replenishing the deficiency.

Clinical trials led by the scientists at the University Hospital Southampton in patients with asthma have shown that treatment with inhaled SNG001 lowered viral lung pathology and lung load in an in vivo swine flu driven model of viral pneumonia. The pilot phase has shown positive results. The drug has been well-tolerated in clinical trials in more than 200 respiratory patients. Phase II of clinical trials in patients with asthma have shown that SNG001 is well-tolerated, might enhance the lungs’ antiviral ability and improve lung function during cold or flu infection.

TAK-888

TAK-888 is anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG) produced by Japanese pharmaceutical giant Takeda. In March 2020, Takeda announced the development of TAK-888 for the treatment of high-risk individuals. To develop the treatment, scientists will need to get plasma from people successfully recovered from the COVID-19.

Plasma derived-therapies, including hyperimmune globulins, have earlier been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe acute viral respiratory infections and are considered as a potential treatment for COVID-19

The blood-derived antibodies from recovered patients are found to improve the immune system responses in infected patients. The novel treatment has shown promising preliminary results in activating the immune system against the disease. The plasma with antibodies is planned to be administered into critically ill patients. Takeda intends to make the plasma product available for COVID-19 patients in 9–18 months.

Ivermectin

Ivermectin is a medication used for the treatment of parasite infestations, such as head lice, scabies, river blindness, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis, and ascariasis. The drug works by increasing the parasite’s cell membrane, resulting in their paralysis and death. Ivermectin is FDA-approved for a number of parasitic infections and has an established safety profile for human use. Usual side effects of the drug include red eyes, dry and burning skin. It is not clear if Ivermectin is safe for pregnant women, but may be probably acceptable during breastfeeding.

Ivermectin has been shown to stop many viruses, such as HIV, dengue, Zika and influenza, from replicating, at least in the laboratory. The latest laboratory data from Monash University and the Doherty Institute suggests that Ivermectin is able to stop SARS-CoV-2 from replicating in up to 48 hours. Their report shows that Ivermectin is worthy of further consideration as a potential SARS-CoV-2 antiviral.

Ivermectin is thought to stop the processes that allow proteins to move within the virus. These proteins enable the virus to replicate and enhance the infection.

To evaluate possible benefits of the drug in COVID-19 patients, the scientists plan to examine a dosing regimen as, during the clinical trial, a single daily dose was found to be safe but no clinically benefit.

AmnioBoost

AmnioBoost is a natural amniotic fluid supplement by Lattice Biologics. The fluid is taken from healthy, non-related, living donors during a Caesarian delivery. AmnioBoost contains useful proteins, growth factors and signalling molecules that support a healthy tissue environment and help to restore balance to the synovial milieu and cushions. Due to its benefits, AmnioBoost is used for the treatment of joint pain and chronic adult inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Lattice Biologics is exploring the efficacy of AmnioBoost in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is one of the most common causes of death in COVID-19 infection and is associated with older age, co-morbidities such as diabetes, disease and inflammation severity. AmnioBoost has shown efficacy in alleviating the inflammatory conditions caused by several diseases, including coronavirus. The drug is thought to reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines while boosting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and facilitating staffing tissues with naturally occurring anti-inflammatory cells. That helps to fight off the inflammatory processes caused by several diseases. Such an opinion is supported by the clinical study conducted in China, suggesting that allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might treat or significantly improve functional outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Antibody treatment

Several pharmaceutical companies have begun working on antibody treatment for the patients infected with COVID-19.

The Indianapolis drugmaker Eli Lilly is working with AbCellera to start testing an antibody therapy designed for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in humans. AbCellera identified more than 500 human antibodies that could be potent against the virus from a blood sample of a recovered coronavirus patient.

AbCellera received a blood sample from a US patient recovered from COVID-19, then screened more than 5 million immune cells searching for those that could make functional antibodies. As a result, the company has identified more than 500 unique fully human antibody sequences that might help patients to neutralise the virus and recover from the disease. The next step was to find the most antibodies effective in neutralising the novel virus. Most of these antibodies will be identified in cooperation with the Vaccine Research Center at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. They will be tested for their ability to neutralise the virus.

Vir Biotechnology, Inc. has announced a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Vaccine Research Center to research and develop human monoclonal antibodies against coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. Vir Biotechnology, Inc. has identified numerous monoclonal antibodies that can bind to SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies were taken from people who had recovered from a SARS infection. The current research aims to define if these antibodies may be an effective treatment or prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2.

Convalescent plasma

This treatment involves taking blood plasma from people who have recovered from the COVID-19. Their plasma contains antibodies that could fight against the virus and improve immune response.

The trials published in the Journal of the American Medical Association and the journal PNAS have shown promising results on patients critically ill with COVID-19.

The first trial researched if the administration of convalescent plasma transfusion might be useful in the treatment of severely ill patients with coronavirus disease. In this trial, five critically ill patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were administered convalescent plasma with high virus-specific IgG and IgM ELISA titers. The trial resulted in viral load decline and the improvement of clinical conditions of these patients as well as the body temperature reduction, improved chest imaging and Pao2/Fio2. It increased neutralising antibody titers, which is important for the restriction of viral infection. Four patients who were on mechanical ventilation and ECMO no longer needed respiratory support in 9 days after plasma transfusion. The results of the study have shown that antibodies from convalescent plasma may benefit the clearance of the virus and improve the symptoms of the disease.

Cannabis and CBD

 
There are no studies, confirming that cannabis or its compounds, such as CBD, may prevent or treat coronavirus. However, useful properties of cannabis are considered to have the potential for the treatment of the novel coronavirus.

CBD products and cannabis is a natural way to positively affect the immune system. In many cases, it is the immune system’s response that does harm not the viral infection. Due to its bi-directional activity, CBD may act as an immunosuppressant and immunomodulator, adjusting the immune system response and suppressing over-reactions, and increasing under-reactions.

Studies suggest that cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors can affect the immune system, viral replication, and viral pathogenesis.

By suppressing the immune system and calming a heightened immune response, CBD may bring benefits in a number of health conditions, such as autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The studies on mice have shown that prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol might reduce inflammation in the case of an acute lung injury. Therefore, CBD administered therapeutically, such as during an inflammatory process, may cause a potent anti-inflammatory effect and improve the lung function.

CBD can also act as an immunomodulator during viral infection. Doing so, it may cause long-lasting effects, ease motor deficits in the chronic phase of the disease and activate cytokine production.

According to multiple studies, CBD may cause more cell deaths in virally infected cells, which is helpful for the immune system. Cannabidiol may also suppress virus replication, which has been shown in a study for the treatment of viral hepatitis.

Adaptive and dynamic components regulate the accuracy and speed of immune responses. Late or inadequate immune responses may prolong and challenge the disease, while an uncontrolled response can make immune responses to act against their own healthy cells and tissues. The immune system components, such as a cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and its receptor IL-2R, play an important role in maintaining the immune balance. CBD can either suppress or encourage IL-2 and IFN-γ production, as well as maintaining the optimal activity of T cells that is important when managing novel coronaviruses.

Moreover, a study on mice has shown that prophylactic treatment with CBD may reduce inflammation during acute lung injury. CBD products may also interact with the inner endocannabinoid system, providing the balance in the immune system response to novel viruses. However, further studies on humans are required.

By Alphagreen Team

Source: Alphagreen Blog

 

Cannabis being used in makeup products is on the rise

Sephora announced the launch of its ‘High Beauty’ range earlier this year. With cannabis becoming legalised in Canada and US state Oklahoma voting to legalise medicinal marijuana recently, there has been much discussion about the health benefits of the plant.

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Further to its use as an ingredient used to treat various health conditions, cannabis has also recently been having quite a moment within the beauty industry.

CBD, the non-psychoactive chemical compound found in the marijuana plant, has been used by several brands in products including mascaras and moisturisers.

As long as products only contain trace amounts of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the key compound in cannabis which causes users to experience being high, then they can legally be sold to consumers.

According to Brightfield Group, a company that specialises in cannabis and CBD market research, CBD is the “next hot, functional beauty ingredient”, that may have a similar impact on the beauty industry as shea butter and aloe.

Furthermore, due to the increased interest in cannabis for medicinal, recreational and cosmetic use, the CBD industry is expected to reach an estimated value of $22bn (£16bn) by 2022.

In September this year, French beauty label Sephora launched its first cannabis-infused cosmetics brand called “High Beauty”.

The line launched with two products: “High Expectations”, a cannabis facial oil, and “High Five”, a cannabis facial moisturiser.

Melissa Jochim, the founder of High Beauty, explained that there’s been a shift in attitude in the way in which people perceive marijuana, as it’s now viewed by many as a wellness product as opposed to simply a recreational drug.

“It just hasn’t been mainstream until people started seeing it as a lifestyle ingredient, or one for wellbeing,” she said, according to Civilized.

Estée Lauder’s Origins brand also became one of the first mainstream beauty companies to release cannabis-infused products earlier this year.

On the company’s website, it states that all ingredients used to manufacture the certified products in the range are 100 per cent natural and that it only uses “the highest grade, locally grown cannabis and marijuana.”

WHIO-TV, a news station in Ohio, undertook an investigation into beauty products being sold in America that contain CBD.

The team discovered that many of the products come with assurances that CBD has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, with the ability to help people improve the condition of their skin, smooth their wrinkles and thicken their eyelashes.

“These topical products, they’re not going to make you high or anything like that. They don’t have the psychoactive components in them,” Dr Gregory Samano, a family doctor based in Florida told the news station.

“I’m excited about it. I think it’s going to show a lot of progress as time goes on.”

Click here to check out 10 of the best cannabis beauty products on the market, including an £80 day cream by MGC Derma, a £20 hand and body wash by Malin+Goetz, a £7.69 soap by Dr Bronner’s and a £70 facial oil by Votary.

Source: The Independent

 

CBD Article – Tim Byrne

“Think about ‘strong distribution’, it does not have to mean big and broad, it could be narrow and niche with hidden growth”.

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Business is like gardening if you do not keep on top of things they get out of control. Its great planting new plants and seeds in the ground that you have prepared but unless you continue to weed and prune, it all becomes overgrown and ultimately requires a complete re-start.

As horrendous as is it perhaps the current pandemic gives us an opportunity to apply the same principle to our businesses. Many in the space have seen successful and seen rapid growth. While I am sure that many have continued to see growth over their internet sales longer terms plans have been severely disrupted.

I believe this time gives a real opportunity to secure, shape and review where the market is, to revisit and refresh strategy and make plans for the other side of the crisis.

As we have said in previous blogs there remain significant challenges in the market, oversupply in certain sectors, continued uncertainty about the shape and progress of regulation and legislation and the lurking power of the ‘big boys’ with their deep pockets and know-how.

The starting point must be what was your original goal? Was it to build a business to sell (or the one that always makes me laugh ‘to float’) for capital gain or to make some cash from sales? If the former you will only make capital if you have something worthwhile to sell, this might be via innovation or strong distribution. Properly protected innovation creates capital worth.

If you see creating capital value through building a strong distribution network, you need to ask what does that mean? Strength in one channel and in one region is unlikely to attract the buyer of your business that you want. Secondly is it realistic to think that you can build strong distribution without strong brands?

Think about ‘strong distribution’, it does not have to mean big and broad, it could be narrow and niche with hidden growth.

If your aim is simply to make a few ‘bob’ through sales the window of opportunity continues to exist but is narrowing. 

Source: Ginger CBD & Cannabinoid Science

By Tim Byrne

 

Why is CBD on everyone’s lips?

CBD is one of the biggest buzzwords in food and drink. It’s been hailed the next big thing, with more and more chefs and producers using CBD in their recipes. So what is it? And why is it so trendy?

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In The Food Programme, Charlotte Smith talks to the owner and chef at the UK’s first cannabis-infused restaurant, meets other experts in the field – and even samples CBD herself – to try and find out what all the fuss is about.

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, more commonly known as CBD, is a chemical extracted from the cannabis plant. Unlike its sibling tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), it’s non-psychoactive and won’t get you high.

Why would you take it and what does it do to you?

CBD is thought to impart a feeling of relaxation and calm, with many arguing that it helps to relieve pain and inflammation and reduce anxiety. So far the studies aren’t clear as to whether eating small amounts has any effect or not but, despite this, it’s now a popular alternative for those seeking a remedy for anxiety or pain who don’t want to take a mind-altering drug.

Many people who take CBD believe it can help with a general sense of wellness as part of a holistic approach to looking after the body and mind.

What does it look like and how would you take it?

You can buy CBD in an oil in most health food shops. Minor Figures, who make canned coffee and oat milk, and are now producing CBD infused coconut oil. Their strategy is to sell it to cafes to display on their counter, so customers can pick up a bottle when they’re grabbing a coffee. Lexie Forrester, who does marketing for the company, describes it as “a rescue remedy following the over-consumption of coffee.” She claims if you’re feeling jittery after too many ground beans, a couple of drops under the tongue can calm you down.

The UK’s first cannabis-infused restaurant in Brighton, The Canna Kitchen, has an extensive menu of food incorporating the chemical, and even does a range of cannabis infused mocktails. Head chef Charlotte Kjaer says their ethos is all about healing whole foods, a plant-based diet and putting hemp in the spotlight it deserves. Customers can choose whether to have CBD suspended in hemp oil added to their dish or not, normally in the form of dressings, pesto or sides like tahini. This supposedly stops it losing its beneficial properties during the cooking process.

What does it taste like?

CBD has a distinct, earthy flavour so the oil can really change the flavour profile of food. For this reason it benefits from being paired with sweet foods, which counteract the natural bitterness. It’s no surprise that CBD gummy bears are so popular! You can also find CBD in coffee, cake, and chocolates in cafes and shops all over the country. One vendor even offers a CBD croissant.

What’s happened to make CBD popular now?

According to the Cannabis Trades Association UK, the number of people buying CBD in Britain doubled between 2017 and 2018 to 250,000. Why has it become so trendy all of a sudden?

Harry Sumnall is professor in substance use at Liverpool John Moores University and he’s been studying the rise of CBD in the UK. He believes one reason CBD is increasing in popularity is a growing public awareness of the potential medical benefits. The media attention around the cases of a two young boys with intractable epilepsy who are seemingly gaining benefits from CBD has played its part.

But it’s the United States that’s really leading the charge in this area. California was the first state to legalise cannabis for medicinal use in 1996 under the Compassionate Use Act, and this kick-started a wave of legalisation across many other states. The drug is mostly being sold for people to smoke, but edible cannabis has become more and more popular – giving birth to a new, exploding food industry.

Is the future of CBD in drinks?

If we’re looking to America to predict the way the market goes here, then the future is in drinks. In the United States, money from multinational companies is pouring into cannabis infused alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Even well known, worldwide brands like Coca Cola and Pepsi are considering moving into cannabis and investing billions of dollars into the development of CBD products.

Is CBD here to stay?

At the moment CBD isn’t regulated, so you aren’t necessarily getting what is considered a functional amount of CBD in your product. Manufacturers can put a couple of drops in a bar of chocolate and charge ten pounds for it, without proving there is any benefit or effect at all. Also, the safety of CBD is currently being reviewed by the Food Standards Agency. At the moment manufacturers do not have to prove that the CBD their product contains is safe. If this changes, as it may soon do, it will pose a large challenge to producers and retailers of CBD products.

However, CBD doesn’t appear to be ‘just a phase’ and however its regulation evolves it looks set to stay on our shelves. The market is growing at an extraordinary rate, with some estimates putting the potential CBD market at around two billion Euros a year. So although you might not see cannabis-infused products on every street corner just yet, you may not find that you have to look too far for too much longer.

 

Source: BBC 

 

A list of the best CBD oil companies in the UK in 2020   Martha Stewart is launching CBD products for humans and their pets

Culinary expert Martha Stewart is launching her own line of cannabidiol (CBD) products for humans and their pets.

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The 77-year-old has announced that she will be teaming up with Canopy Growth – one of the world’s largest marijuana producers – to develop a line of CBD health products.

However, fans of the Emmy award-winning television show host will have to wait a while until they can try her products because her first venture is going to cater specifically to animals.

“I am delighted to establish this partnership with Canopy Growth and share with them the knowledge I have gained after years of experience in the subject of living,” Stewart said in a statement.

“I’m especially looking forward to our first collaboration together, which will offer sensible products for people’s beloved pets.”

While Stewart’s association with a cannabis company may seem like an unlikely partnership, Canopy Growth said she was an obvious choice.

“As soon as you hear the name Martha, you know exactly who we’re talking about,” Canopy chairman and co-CEO Bruce Linton said in a statement.

“Martha is one of a kind and I am so excited to be able to work alongside this icon to sharpen our CBD. product offerings across categories from human to animal.”

CBD: What is it and how is it being used in the UK?

Canopy Growth has revealed that several clinical trials for the pet products are already underway and that Stewart will be advising the company as they develop.

With the partnership, Stewart follows in the footsteps of her close friend Snoop Dogg, who invested in Tweed, a Canopy Growth subsidiary, in 2016.

The pair currently star together on their cooking-meets-talk show Martha & Snoop’s Potluck Dinner Party.

In 2018, it was reported that the number of CBD consumers doubled following a rise in readily-available cannabis-derived products around the world.

CBD is a non-psychoactive chemical compound found in the marijuana plant and doesn’t contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) –  the main psychoactive perception and mood-altering component of cannabis.

This means that products containing CBD won’t lead to hallucinogenic effects like the recreational use of marijuana is known to do.

Instead, CBD is typically sold in products, like oils, that advertise benefits such as pain relief and reducing anxiety.

However, it remains unclear as to how these types of products affect animals.

According to Forbes, there are a number of examples where CBD might help a domestic animal including for treatment of anxiety when travelling or going to the vet.

There are already a number of “pet-friendly” products available to buy online but while people may be medicating their pets with CBD, there remains very little research on the subject.

In Colorado – the first US state to legalise recreational marijuana in 2012 – Dr Stephanie McGrath, a neurologist and assistant professor at Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, has completed two clinical studies on the effects of cannabidiol in dogs with osteoarthritis or epilepsy.

An initial investigation involving 30 healthy research animals found that CBD was tolerated while preliminary results of the epilepsy investigation were promising enough that McGrath began a three-year crossover study with a $350,000 (£264,358) grant from the American Kennel Club in January 2018.

Speaking to The Independent, the RSPCA said that more research needs to be done before CBD can be recommended as an aid to distressed animals.

“We are not aware of any studies which show proven benefits of CBD oil for pets,” said Caroline Allen, chief veterinary officer at the RSPCA.

“If anyone has concerns about their pet’s health, we would always advise them to contact their vet.”

 

By Sarah Young

Source: Independent

Tech start-up using magic mushroom extracts to treat clinical depression raises £64million from investors including billionaire Paypal founder Peter Thiel

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  • Compass Pathways researching psilocybin, which is found in ‘magic mushroom’
  • The company plans to trial a synthetic form on patients with clinical depression
  • If it is a success and approved, Compass hopes to market the product by 2025
  • The firm is being backed by investors such as billionaire Paypal founder Peter Thiel 

Tech firm Compass Pathways has raised the money from its investors, which include Peter Thiel, the billionaire Paypal co-founder.

Its researchers are carrying out studies into psychoactive substance psilocybin, found in the wild-growing psilocybin mushroom – a class A drug in the UK.

The company hopes to carry out clinical trials on patients using a synthetic form of psilocybin, in the hope the compound can be used to treat clinical depression, anorexia and bipolar disorder.

American entrepreneur George Goldsmith is chief executive of Compass Pathways, which he founded in 2016 with wife Ekaterina Malievskaia (pictured together)

American entrepreneur George Goldsmith is chief executive of Compass Pathways, which he founded in 2016 with wife Ekaterina Malievskaia (pictured together)

If future trials are a success, the company hopes to have the treatment on the market by 2025.

American entrepreneur George Goldsmith, chief executive of Compass Pathways, which he founded in 2016 with wife Ekaterina Malievskaia, told The Times: ‘People with depression get caught in negative thought loops.

‘What psilocybin can do is reset the thought loops, in combination with therapy.

‘The medicine creates an openness and a new way of looking at things.’

According to statistics by the World Health Organisation, there are around 100 million patients worldwide whose depression does not respond to standard treatments.

In more than two-thirds of cases, these treatments involve prescription drugs or a referral to a mental health experts, including psychiatrists. 

Compass Pathways raised £64m from investors to carry out trials on psilocybin, the active ingredient in 'magic mushrooms' (above)

Compass Pathways raised £64m from investors to carry out trials on psilocybin, the active ingredient in ‘magic mushrooms’ (above)

Compass Pathways’ treatment involves patients taking a man-made version of psilocybin – branded COMP360 – while being cared for by a specialist.

A trial last year on 89 people, run by King’s College in London, showed ‘no adverse side effects’ to the treatment.

King’s College London scientists found doses of the compound were safe when taken by healthy volunteers.

Some patients experienced a ‘high’ similar to one endured by those who take the party drug, having hallucinations and euphoria during a six-hour ‘trip’, but no negative effects were reported.

Now Compass Pathways plans to run a new trial, involving more than 200 patients at sites across Europe and North America.

The trial would move its treatment closer to approval from American regulator the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well as regulators in Europe. 

The firm has been backed financially by investors including Paypal Founder Mr Thiel, who has invested around £25million, as well as German Biotech firm Atai Life Sciences and Japanese pharmaceuticals group, Otsuka.

Over recent years there has been a surge of interest in using MDMA and LSD for hard-to-treat issues.

A medicinal nasal spray which contains a synthetic form of ketamine was approved for depression last year.

As well as depression, studies are looking into the efficacy of the substances on PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and alcohol dependency.

What are ‘magic mushrooms’? 

A Psilocybin mushroom is a mushroom which contains psilocybin and psilocin.

Psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, is a hallucinogen.

This doesn’t necessarily mean it causes visual or auditory hallucinations, but changes in sensual perception of their environment.

There are thought to be around 150 species of ‘magic mushroom’ worldwide, around a dozen of which are in Europe.

But many poisonous mushrooms look very similar to ‘magic mushrooms’ and it’s easy for pickers to mistake them – sometimes with fatal consequences.

The most common ‘magic mushroom’ in the UK are known as ‘liberty caps’ and are often dried out once picked before they are either eaten or brewed into tea. 

Some people can get mild hallucinations from taking the mushrooms, which are classified as a Class A drug in the UK – making it illegal to have, give away or sell.

Possession can get you up to seven years in prison, an unlimited fine or both.

Source: FRANK 

Source: Evening Standard

Could CBD help ease your covanxiety?

It’s boom time for CBD as the capital looks for ways to relax in lockdown. Phoebe Luckhurst has a bluffer’s guide to mellowing out…

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The world just won’t stop, will it? Duly, nor will the anxiety, the sleeplessness and the unshakable sense of all being unwell. There is no panacea — unless someone has a secret passage into an alternative reality in which none of this happened. Anyone?

Failing that, you could also try CBD. Advocates (and there are many) say it relieves pain, calms racing minds and can help you sleep better. For those who missed the wellness train the first time it left the station CBD — or cannabidiol — is a non-psychoactive chemical found in marijuana plants, which doesn’t contain the active THC that gets you high. And in lockdown, there’s been a boom: CBD brand Trip — which makes CBD cold brews and oils — reports that its sales have doubled since March 23, and it has witnessed a 300 per cent increase in website traffic engagement.

Business magazine Fortune observes a rise in what it’s calling the comfort economy: luxury loungewear, bedding — and CBD gummies. Market research firm Brightfield Group projects the European CBD market will grow to nearly $1.7 billion (almost £1.4 billion) by 2023 — the UK and Austria are currently its biggest customers.

Relax: these are some of the products you can order to your home now.

 
Trip’s new CBD oil

Oil me up

Trip’s new CBD oils — available in wild mint and orange blossom flavours — are available to order now, ahead of their launch on May 1. They’re gluten-free, palm-oil free and vegan (obvs), and are blended with chamomile — dispense a few droplets under your tongue, or add to coffee. They are available in original strength (300mg CBD) or strong (1,000mg) (drink-trip.com). Or, if your joints are creaky after too many bedroom HIIT classes, try Grass & Co’s Ease CBD Hemp Body Oil, a blend of tea tree, eucalyptus, peppermint and arnica designed to soothe weary muscles (selfridges.com).  Pure Sport CBD’s Muscle & Joint Balm includes a blend of lavender, peppermint and lemongrass and is designed to be massaged into tight muscles to speed up recovery (puresportcbd.co.uk).

Chill out

Take the edge off your caffeine high with a CBD cold brew coffee. Zealots love Hamilton Street Cold Brew, which in peacetime is sold in zeitgeist wellness emporium Glow Bar in Mortimer Street (remember Soho? Does it still exist?). For now, you can order from their website (hamiltonstreetcoldbrew.com). Meanwhile Trip promises that its cold brew, made with Guatemalan beans and brewed in east London, delivers “jitter-free energy” (and, as it’s served up in a can, it’s also 100 per cent recyclable).

 
Pureearth’s Balance CBD shot

Feeling juicy

Or, you could double up and get your five a day at the same time. Try Purearth’s new CBD shots, Calm CBD Chaga and Cacao and Balance CBD Pineapple and Nettle (purearth.co.uk). Intune’s grapefruit and mint drink is a blend of CBD botanicals, fruit juice and spring water. Get some rays (in your living room), fill a tumbler with ice and lie back and let the good times roll (planetorganic.com).

Source: Evening Standard

Developing skills for the post-coronavirus world

8 Job Skills To Succeed In A Post-Coronavirus World

With nearly all of us at home and plenty of us with time on our hands, now is a great time to invest in yourselves with some training.

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The Government has launched free training courses, which will help ensure candidates have the best prospects when the crisis is over. Encouraging agency workers and other candidates to take advantage of these free courses will pay off in the long term, improving their skill set, job prospects as well as the relationship with your agency.

For recruiters, these free courses can complement more focused learning such as REC’s training courses to improve your teams’ skills. While you can’t mandate training for furloughed team members and candidates, they might be thankful for the opportunity to upskill.

New government Skills Toolkit

The Government has launched The Skills Toolkit. This online platform gives free digital and numeracy courses to everyone. The courses, which range from beginner level to advanced, are provided by organisations such as Google, the Open University and Cisco.

With many candidates looking to use this period productively, accessing this tool and getting their CVs ready for the post-crisis economy is to be encouraged.

Importance of digital skills

Maths and digital skills are highly valued by employers. It’s not just technology jobs that require digital skills. It has become a requirement across all sectors and at all skill levels, with an estimated 82% of job vacancies requiring some form of digital skills.

However, there is strong evidence that many of us lack the basics. A 2019 study by Lloyds Bank found that 17.3 million working people (53%) in the UK do not have the essential digital skills that are required for their work.

At the other end of the scale, demand for people with high-level digital skills is greater than the supply of suitably qualified employees, and the gap is growing. In a CBI report from last year, 99% of businesses said that they will need more advanced digital skills in the next five years.

Recruitment training

For recruiters who are looking to upskill, the REC has a great range of training courses. Due to the current situation, our training courses are all online and there is a 25% discount. These range from an introductory course on recruitment practices to advanced courses in recruitment law.

The Department for Education has asked for REC members to promote the new toolkit to candidates currently furloughed. Please do encourage candidates to have a look at the courses on offer, especially via LinkedIn.

 

 New study to look at the impact of COVID-19 on cannabis patients

 A new study will be looking at the impact of the novel coronavirus – COVID-19 – on patients who use medical cannabis.

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A preliminary study looking at the impact of COVID-19 on cannabis patients, led by the University of Miami, will be utilising epidemiology expertise, and looking at data collected on the patterns and trends of medical cannabis patients during the coronavirus outbreak.

Currently, medical cannabis patients are facing delays in the procurement of medicines due to the crisis, making them a vulnerable group that may be impacted by the virus.

Cannabis use in a time of crisis

The researchers will be using an anonymous survey to obtain from medical cannabis patients regarding their mental health and physical health, as well as examining changes in patient’s frequency of use of cannabis, dosage, and route of administration based on COVID-19-related closures and updates.

Denise C Vidot, PhD, trained epidemiologist and assistant professor at the School of Nursing and Health Studies, is leading the preliminary study. She said: “The global qualifying conditions for medical cannabis, though not uniform, all include individuals with compromised immune systems and other chronic health conditions. Therefore, this is a population that we cannot forget about in our joint effort to ‘flatten the curve’.

“If COVID-19 has taught us anything, it is that population-based data is vital to make informed decisions. My team and I understand that the plural of anecdote is not data. So, we are combining our skills to do our part to provide that data. Our goal is to have cannabis users from every country complete this survey, so the data is more generalisable.”

Another topic that experts will be investigating is the sharing of inhaled cannabis products, such as joints and vapes, among users – what could be a contributing factor to the spread of the novel coronavirus.

By Stephanie Price

Source: Health Europa

Super Drugs for Superbugs: How Cannabinoid Science Links CBG to MRSA Treatment

For nearly 40 years, the antimicrobial effects of cannabis-sourced compounds have been known to researchers. A new study sheds light on the particularly potent efficacy of an up-and-coming cannabinoid, CBG.

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Super Drugs for Superbugs: How Cannabinoid Science Links CBG to MRSA Treatment

An increase of mutating microbes around the globe has led medical experts to call antibiotic resistance an “apocalyptic threat” and raises an alarm for needed research into finding new solutions now. The most recent antibacterial drug developments date back more than 30 years at this point. With many of the chemical components of cannabis known to have antimicrobial effects as a way for the plant to protect itself, research into how these benefits can translate into the human disease has begun in earnest. In terms of antimicrobial action, one such cannabinoid, cannabigerol (CBG), has proven particularly potent.

The antimicrobial and antifungal implications of CBG were first investigated in 1982 by the Elsohly et al team at the University of Mississippi. But research remained superficial until larger concentrations of the compound could be easily obtained, either from lab synthesis or access to the CBG-rich plants that are now being cultivated after the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill.

In a 2008 study on antibacterial cannabinoids, investigators demonstrated potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by both CBD and CBG via topical application. The researchers also pointed out that the potential synergy of cannabinoids and terpenes, many of which also have antimicrobial potential, should be considered to improve patient outcomes.

Additionally, a 2018 study reported that endocannabinoids, like anandamide (AEA), are able to inhibit the spread of MRSA infections by decreasing biofilm formation which can increase the spread of bacterial colonization on the skin. Drugs that mimic the effects of AEA in the body, like THC, or drugs that inhibit the degradation of AEA in the body by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), may prove agents of promise in the fight against biofilm-associated MRSA infections.

In recent news, a study out of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario published in bioRxiv preprint demonstrated that CBG was more effective against MRSA USA300, a highly virulent and prevalent form, than the four other major cannabinoids tested: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabinol (CBN).

As effective as vancomycin, a drug widely considered the last line of defence against drug-resistant bacteria, CBG was shown to be successful at treating MRSA. Unlike vancomycin, which has already begun to exhibit bacterial resistance, this superbug displayed no such energy for overcoming the CBG therapy. The cannabinoid was also more potent than conventional antibiotics in inhibiting the thin, slimy biofilms associated with disease persistence and against dormant “persister” cells that have a role in chronic and relapsing infection, rapidly eradicating populations below detectable levels.

More Than MRSA

Additionally, researchers in this new study were able to further elucidate the beneficial effects of CBG against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria. These two broad categories of bacteria classification are associated with cell wall permeability. The double cell membrane of Gram-negative organisms makes treatment trickier. Without a little help from compounds that can dissolve the outer shell while preserving the inner cell layer, conventional antibiotic treatments have a difficult time getting through. And regular mutations in drug-resistant types make treatment nearly impossible.

Gram-negative bacteria make-up 75% of the antibiotic-resistant infections highlighted by the World Health Organization (WHO), according to the study’s authors, and are responsible for an array of deleterious diseases, including chlamydia and gonorrhoea as well as pneumonic, septicemic, and bubonic plagues. Particularly virulent strains like Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause deadly healthcare-associated infections like pneumonia and various sepsis syndromes.

Once investigators demonstrated the ability of CBG to effectively work on the inner membrane of Gram-positive MRSA in a rodent model, they tested its efficacy on Gram-negative E. coli after the outer membrane was made permeable by the addition of polymyxin B, an antibiotic already in use to treat Gram-negative infections. By breaking down the disease cell membrane, polymyxin B provided CBG access to its point of action. While these results are significant, serious side effects are associated with this added compound, including kidney failure, whereas one of the most promising aspects of cannabinoid therapies is the low rate of both serious side effects and toxicity to healthy cells.

The results of the study demonstrated the potential for CBG therapy against MRSA infection and disease persistence by inhibiting bacteria, repressing biofilm formation, eradicating already present biofilms, and effectively eliminating problematic persister cells. The non-intoxicating, non-sedative nature of the cannabis constituent further highlights its therapeutic potential against drug-resistant bacteria with a very low rate of resistance development. Now that CBG has been made more readily available to researchers, human trials will be the next step in determining whether this super drug is an effective therapy against superbugs.

Source: Cannabis Dispensary

CBD athleisure: Does Acabada Premium ProActiveWear infused with Cannabidiol actually work?

CBD is everywhere these days, whether it’s mixed into your morning smoothie or into your favourite face cream. Now, one brand is weaving into the fabric of your shorts.

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 Yes, you read that right – CBD, or Cannabidiol, is part of the newly-launched athleisure line Acabada to make recovery part of your workout. 

Each piece of the clothing line is made with fabric infused with up to 25 grams of 99.9 per cent pure CBD.

Microscopic CBD droplets are first wrapped in a protective polymer coating, much like a chic science project. This creates a ‘shell’ for the CBD, which prevents it from evaporating while you sweat. The microcapsules are then embedded into the fibre of the fabric, which stays sleek and lightweight.

 
(Acabada)

The infused fabrics placed throughout the clothing are meant to align with major muscle groups. And once you start moving, they activate accordingly. The CBD targets muscles, making it easier for you to recover from tough workouts. It’s supposed to fight post-workout soreness, so the next time you go to an intensive workout you don’t have that same inability to walk upstairs the next day.

So do they work? I gave the super chic biker shorts a test drive at two separate workouts, wearing them to a workout with my personal trainer as well as to an outdoors Pilates class. And while the classes certainly weren’t Dogpound, both were intense. The shorts did not make the workout easier (unfortunately) but I wasn’t quite as sore as usual. I’d have to take them to a boot camp class to know for sure how they aid in recovery, but that also means that I’d have to do a boot camp class.

(Acabada)

Even if you don’t believe in the healing powers of CBD (it’s said to help with insomnia and anxiety), the shorts, leggings and tanks are still chic.

Elevated bike shorts especially are hard to find in the athleisure department, however, Acabada delivers. Their shorts are just tight enough to have the Spanx-like power necessary to wear them exclusively with a sports bra, with pleather-esque details to take you from barre to bar. To be honest, I’d wear them with or without the CBD – because their magic power is really sucking everything in.. 

 
(Acabada)

If you’re worried about sweating out the CBD (as I was), it doesn’t disappear easily. The CBD is said to last through 40 different wash and wear cycles – and let’s be honest, most people don’t wash their leggings that regularly.

Unfortunately, if you decide to try the latest Victoria’s Secret-angel approved workout – you’re still going to feel it the next day. These pieces do help recovery go by a little bit easier though and you’ll look stylish in the process.

Source: Evening Standard

CBD Article – Robert Burton

“As adviser’s top investors in the cannabinoid space, we have seen, in the blink of the eye, prices for CBD isolate fall through the floor…”

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As adviser’s top investors in the cannabinoid space we have seen, in the blink of the eye  (well the last six months), prices for CBD isolate fall through the floor; from quoted prices in excess of  $10,000/kg to less than $1,000. This is a direct result of oversupply. As an international consultancy, we are constantly approached by new growers and processors and wholesaler/retailers from around the world bringing more and more product to the market.

Those using CDB in their products cannot find distribution fast enough to mop up the supply, and with major retailers nervous about the regulatory environment, access to consumers is skewed to greater reliance on direct sales than it ought to be. The good news is the oversupply is being solved in part by the numerous new entrants piling into the market, however, without sufficient distribution, this merely increases stock holdings and consequently working capital stretch.

The demand growth for CBD products remains strong with an oversupply of product the re-balancing will inevitably require a reduction of payers in the market. The latter will happen from a combination of a reduction in investment and the liquidation of some of the current players. This always happens in new markets but appears to be happening in this market particularly soon after its inception, but that is probably as a result of just how many players have piled in looking for a quick buck.

There is nothing new in this market dynamic and the expected result will be a rebalancing of supply both at the grower and processor level and of wholesalers. Those with deep pockets and a long-term view will be fine, those with short demands on cash (maybe exacerbated by new regulatory costs) may need a chat and a cup of tea with their investors.

Source: Ginger CBD & Cannabinoid Science

By Robert Burton

A list of the best CBD oil companies in the UK in 2020   

CBD oils are ill-understood by many of the public in the UK, and the misinformation isn’t helped by outlandish claims made by CBD oil companies online and in health and wellness stores.

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There are few government regulations in place to check on companies selling CBD Oil.

A recent BBC investigation of Trust Me I’m a Doctor uncovered that low-quality CBD oils are common both online and in stores – some of which contain no CBD at all.

Consumers are left asking questions such as “how to buy the best CBD oil?”, “how to buy the best CBD oil near me” and for those people that are new to CBD, “what is CBD?”.

So here is a guide to some of the best-known brands currently on the market to help you decide which is the best product for you, and information on how to make sure you buy the best CBD oil possible.

Best CBD Oil Companies in the UK

Here’s a list of the best CBD oils available to buy in the UK

 

  1. Balance CBD

Balance CBD’s premium oil tinctures are described as one of the best CBD oils for both beginners and seasoned CBD users.

Produced by a small family-run company, they started off in the USA, won many accolades and have now expanded to the UK.

All of their CBD oils are made in Edinburgh, they’ve spent a long time perfecting their products. All CBD products are 100% organic and vegan, their CBD products are free from artificial flavours, additives, preservatives, sweeteners, gluten and animal testing.

All customers have access to a helpful beginner’s guide to CBD which contains information about CBD, dosage, and how to effectively use CBD.

Unlike most of the CBD oil companies in the UK, Balance CBD oils come in a 30ml bottle rather than a 10ml bottle, with CBD strengths varying from 500mg to 1500mg. This means that you get more CBD for your money.

As well as this, they provide a copy of their lab certificate so you can see exactly what is in the CBD oil that you’re consuming.

The company’s CBD Muscle Relief Cream, one of their many CBD products was recently selected to be featured in the 2020 Golden Globe Awards Gift Bag and they’ve also featured in the Manchester Evening News.

  1. Original Alternative CBD

Original Alternative CBD is one of the oldest companies operating in the UK CBD oil market. They have developed a reputation for top-quality CBD and providing customers with a great experience.

They offer a range of different CBD oils that are made from hemp that’s grown organically across Europe.

Their products leave a strong earthy taste in your mouth and are available in dosages from 500mg to 1200mg. They’re a great choice for seasoned and experienced CBD users.

Original Alternative CBD provide high-quality CBD oil, they are well respected and reviewed and with every bottle, you’re able to see their verified lab results.

  1. CBDFx

Well known in the CBD industry around the world, CBDFx has made its way to the UK CBD oil market.

They use the top-notch CO2 method to extract their CBD oils and their products are made using organic hemp. You can buy them in the UK in-store and online.

They offer a wide range of CBD oil flavours for you to try and work out what the best CBD oil is for you. So if you don’t like the natural earthy flavours, you can choose to take CBD oil in a flavour such as lemon, blueberry or lychee!

However, the flip side is that CBDFx can be a little expensive with the cheapest CBD oil for sale at £60. All of their CBD oil bottles contain a QR code to let you see exactly what is in the bottle, so you can be sure that you’re getting a great product!

  1. Endoca

Endoca sells a great range of CBD oils that are created from some of the finest organic hemp extracts.

Endoca has one of the best CBD oils for beginners – a 300mg CBD oil tincture that sells for around £30, and another extra strength CBD 1500mg CBD oil for seasoned users which sells for around £120.

Endoca CBD oils are not available in any flavours – they’re raw and strong. If you find the taste to be too bitter, then we found that Endoca CBD oil is great to mix in with your evening meal.

Endoca also sells a great range of other CBD products, such as capsules and balms. All of their products have been lab-tested, and their high quality means that they are included on our list of best CBD oils.

  1. Provacan

Provacan is one of the best CBD oil companies in the UK. Provacan is one of the few CBD oil companies in the UK that let you buy CBD oils in a variety of different dosage levels. They have CBD oils suited to new users, intermediate users, and power users.

In the CBD industry, Provacan is known for its high-quality products. They use organic hemp sourced from Europe, and every CBD product is lab tested.

One of the only downsides is that these CBD oils can be a little expensive – for example, one 600mg CBD oil sets you back £40, however, they do offer fast shipping if you buy CBD oil online.

Along with CBD oil, Provacan sells a wide range of other CBD products which means that there’s more than one way in which you can get your dose of CBD!

 

What to look for when buying CBD Oil

  • There are several different things you need to consider before you buy CBD oil online, or in store.
  • Ingredient Quality: What ingredients were used to create the oil? Where were the ingredients sourced from? What quality-control measures are enacted to ensure purity?
  • Taste: How does the product taste? Is there a lingering aftertaste?
  • Transparency: What is the availability of information about the product? Does the CBD oil company make its means of production, third-party test results, and sales/ refund policies clear?
  • User Reputation: What is the reputation of the brand? Does the CBD oil company have good reviews and comments across the internet?
  • Customer Service: What is the CBD oil company’s customer service like? Are they responsive? Do they provide clarity, and is the brand’s customer service team helpful?
  • Website Experience: How easy is it to use their website while browsing? How easy is it to select products and place orders?

Frequently Asked Questions About CBD

What Is CBD?

CBD is short for cannabidiol. It is found within the Cannabis and Hemp Plant.

There is often confusion between cannabis and hemp.

The key difference is that cannabis, also referred to as marijuana is used mainly as a recreational drug because it is abundant with the compound THC – tetrahydrocannabinol.

Hemp, on the other hand, is abundant with CBD and very little THC. For this reason, hemp is used for CBD products, and it’s why only CBD products derived from hemp are legal in the UK.

How Does CBD Work?

Our bodies contain a network of receptors known as the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system helps regulate various other systems of the body, such as our nervous system and immune system. It is also tied to virtually every organ that we have.

Think of CBD as a power source that is used by the endocannabinoid system. As CBD is consumed, it is transformed into endocannabinoids which is believed to help the endocannabinoid system to function more efficiently.

This is why some people feel a balance within their bodies after they take CBD , a feeling which may be attributed to the fact that  humans, along with other mammals, have dedicated cannabinoid receptors.

Is CBD Legal in the UK?

Yes. However despite this, there is a great deal of confusion around the legal status of CBD Oil in the UK.

The vast majority of the 100 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant are listed as controlled substances under the Misuse of Drugs Act – however, CBD Oil is an exception.

In 2018, the Home Office said that CBD derived from European industrial hemp is legal if it contains less than 0.2% THC.

 

Industrial hemp is a plant that can be used in building materials and clothing; however, CBD oil can also be extracted from these plants as a legal cannabinoid, and this is the reason CBD oil is legal in the UK.

Does CBD Make You High?

No, CBD oil does not make you high – if you buy from trusted CBD oil companies.

CBD oil is only legal if it contains less than 0.2% THC. This is not enough to get you high. However, there have been cases of people failing drug tests. This is because they bought CBD that was incorrectly labeled, if you buy CBD oil from a trusted source and you know what’s in the bottle, you will not experience a high.

Our list of best CBD oil companies also contains THC free CBD oil. If you take THC free CBD oil, then there is no chance that you will get high.

What is the difference between Full-Spectrum and THC-Free CBD Oil? (Heading 3)

THC-Free CBD oil is exactly what the name says. It is CBD oil, without any THC. The THC has been completely removed from the bottle of CBD oil.

Full-spectrum CBD, on the other hand, contains all of the cannabinoids found in the hemp plant.

The benefit of full-spectrum CBD is something called the entourage effect, which we will explain next.

What is the entourage effect in CBD?

The entourage effect is essentially all of the cannabinoids interacting with each other and working together.

Cannabinoids work together to create unique effects, this combined synergy is referred to as the entourage effect.

How do I use CBD Oil?

CBD is a versatile supplement, and there are several different ways to consume it. Some people add it to their food or drink, others just use the provided droppers and apply it under their tongue.

Applying the full dose of CBD oil directly under your tongue, and holding it for 60-90 seconds before swallowing is the best method to use CBD oil.

This maximizes the bioavailability and ensures proper circulation through your body’s systems.

How do I store CBD Oil?

When CBD oil isn’t being used, it should be stored in an area with minimal heat and moisture, such as the pantry or a cupboard. Some people like to keep their CBD oil in the fridge; however, this might thicken the oil over time. If this happens, simply run the bottle under warm water and then shake it to bring back that original consistency.

Make sure you buy the best CBD oil

There are many CBD oil companies in the market. As the recent BBC investigation showed, not all of them have consumers’ best interests in mind.

At the end of the day, the best way to buy CBD oil is to do your research – buying CBD oil from the high street means that you won’t have access to lab reports, so choosing the best CBD oil for you might mean buying CBD online.

However, even if you buy CBD oil online, you have to be careful.

Always make sure that you can verify what’s in the bottle, QR codes and lab reports help with this.

The brands featured in this article are well-reviewed and talked about.

 

By Fionnuala Bourke

Source: Wales Online 

Medical cannabis treatments in the UK to be limited over doctors’ fears and lack of regulation despite the new law

“‘It’s frustrating because these families have tried everything available to them but their doctors still won’t prescribe medical cannabis,’ says Hannah Deacon’

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Only a minority of patients who stand to benefit from potentially life-changing medicinal cannabis prescriptions will be able to access it after laws change on 1 November, experts have warned.

Despite the potential to help thousands with conditions like epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and nausea from cancer treatment, The Independent has learned that most doctors are so far refusing to prescribe.

Medicinal cannabis prescriptions have already been approved for Alfie Dingley and Billy Caldwell, two boys with rare forms of epilepsy whose parents’ campaigns were instrumental in changing legislation.

But other families in a similar position who have applied for licenses through a temporary approval panel are being “frustrated” by flat refusals from their doctors.

Alfie Dingley’s mother, Hannah Deacon, helped coordinate a public campaign to access the cannabis extract helping Alfie “live a normal life” and now works as an ambassador for cannabis campaign group End Our Pain.

She has been working with 16 families who have been trying to access cannabis for their epileptic children, but in all but two cases the families were refused by their doctor when they asked to try the treatment, while the families who had their paediatrician’s support were rejected by the temporary approval panel and told to try a medicine not currently licensed in the UK.

“It’s very frustrating because all the families are coming back to me saying ‘my doctor still says they won’t do it’,” Ms Deacon added. “They have all tried everything available to them, and their children are still very, very sick. So they’re prime candidates for trying cannabis medicine – it might not work for them as it does for Alfie, but when you’re in that situation you just need to try everything.”

The cannabis treatment used by Alfie is a “whole-plant extract” which contains dozens of cannabinoids and chemicals called terpenes. Many patients report greater benefits from these extracts than cannabis-derived pharmaceutical products which contain just one or two cannabinoids, but they cannot be tested or licensed in the same way as conventional medicines.

 
Six-year-old Alfie Dingley, his parents Drew Dingley and Hannah Deacon and actor Sir Patrick Stewart (left) handed in a petition to Number 10 asking for Alfie to be given medicinal cannabis to treat his epilepsy (PA)

This could pose legal problems for doctors.

“If a neurologist prescribed private, medicinal cannabis for multiple sclerosis symptoms and some side effect or harm happens to the patient, even if it’s mild, then legally that neurologist is in great difficulty if there is no license for that [cannabis preparation],” Dr Waqar Rashid, a consultant neurologist at St George’s Hospital specialising in MS told The Independent.

In Dr Rashid’s view, the only system that could protect doctors and their patients would be to prescribe through a registered medical trial – potentially limiting numbers and increasing costs.

“To say people can prescribe this from November is not correct, really,” he said. “Even with the best will in the world we’re looking at very selective numbers of neurologists prescribing this and it would need the infrastructure to support it.”

Other doctors are looking to expand this base of understanding among doctors and hope to make it more mainstream in time.

“The big barrier to prescription will be the doctors really,” Professor Mike Barnes, a neurologist and consultant on medicinal cannabis who helped secure Alfie Dingley’s prescription. At the minute it’s a blanket ‘no’ where families have applied. One said ‘it’s a passing fad’ but others have said we’re not doing it because there’s no evidence from double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials [used for licensing other drugs].”

“That’s sort of understandable in one way[…] but you have to remember these children continue to be on many different anti-convulsants, and their epilepsy is not controlled. You have to take into account the side effects of that existing medication and damage to the developing brain of continued seizures.”

Professor Barnes has established the Medical Cannabis Clinicians Society, which has already enlisted around 60 doctors for its inaugural event next month and will include training on key areas like dosage and side effects.

Over time he hopes this will give a “small core” of doctors who can help establish cannabis treatment in their hospitals and specialities. They will also be a way of overcoming the reservations of cash-strapped NHS clinical commissioning groups which will be required to fund the treatments and are also stuck without guidance from the government.

Home Office legislation reclassified cannabis and set out it should only be prescribed by specialist doctors – rather than GPs. Detail of how this is regulated and funded is due from the Department of Health and Social Care before 1 November – but has yet to be released leaving the health service in the dark.

Meanwhile, patient groups and charities are already being approached by patients enquiring about the potential of cannabis treatment, and have urged the government not to allow delays that could penalise patients who can’t afford to go private.

“This law change is a landmark moment and could have a huge impact for people with multiple sclerosis,” Genevieve Edwards, director of external affairs at the MS Society, said.

“More than 100,000 people in the UK live with this often painful and exhausting condition and cannabis for medicinal use could help roughly one in 10 of them get relief from pain and muscle spasms.”

“However, we’re concerned that people won’t be able to access cannabis for medicinal use on a wide scale from 1 November. It is critical specialist doctors have the support and information they need to prescribe in a fair and timely way on the NHS.”

Why is CBD on everyone’s lips?

CBD is one of the biggest buzzwords in food and drink. It’s been hailed the next big thing, with more and more chefs and producers using CBD in their recipes. So what is it? And why is it so trendy?

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 In The Food Programme, Charlotte Smith talks to the owner and chef at the UK’s first cannabis-infused restaurant, meets other experts in the field – and even samples CBD herself – to try and find out what all the fuss is about.

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, more commonly known as CBD, is a chemical extracted from the cannabis plant. Unlike its sibling tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), it’s non-psychoactive and won’t get you high.

Why would you take it and what does it do to you?

CBD is thought to impart a feeling of relaxation and calm, with many arguing that it helps to relieve pain and inflammation and reduce anxiety. So far the studies aren’t clear as to whether eating small amounts has any effect or not but, despite this, it’s now a popular alternative for those seeking a remedy for anxiety or pain who don’t want to take a mind-altering drug.

Many people who take CBD believe it can help with a general sense of wellness as part of a holistic approach to looking after the body and mind.

What does it look like and how would you take it?

You can buy CBD in an oil in most health food shops. Minor Figures, who make canned coffee and oat milk, and are now producing CBD infused coconut oil. Their strategy is to sell it to cafes to display on their counter, so customers can pick up a bottle when they’re grabbing a coffee. Lexie Forrester, who does marketing for the company, describes it as “a rescue remedy following the over-consumption of coffee.” She claims if you’re feeling jittery after too many ground beans, a couple of drops under the tongue can calm you down.

The UK’s first cannabis-infused restaurant in Brighton, The Canna Kitchen, has an extensive menu of food incorporating the chemical, and even does a range of cannabis infused mocktails. Head chef Charlotte Kjaer says their ethos is all about healing whole foods, a plant-based diet and putting hemp in the spotlight it deserves. Customers can choose whether to have CBD suspended in hemp oil added to their dish or not, normally in the form of dressings, pesto or sides like tahini. This supposedly stops it losing its beneficial properties during the cooking process.

What does it taste like?

CBD has a distinct, earthy flavour so the oil can really change the flavour profile of food. For this reason it benefits from being paired with sweet foods, which counteract the natural bitterness. It’s no surprise that CBD gummy bears are so popular! You can also find CBD in coffee, cake, and chocolates in cafes and shops all over the country. One vendor even offers a CBD croissant.

What’s happened to make CBD popular now?

According to the Cannabis Trades Association UK, the number of people buying CBD in Britain doubled between 2017 and 2018 to 250,000. Why has it become so trendy all of a sudden?

Harry Sumnall is professor in substance use at Liverpool John Moores University and he’s been studying the rise of CBD in the UK. He believes one reason CBD is increasing in popularity is a growing public awareness of the potential medical benefits. The media attention around the cases of a two young boys with intractable epilepsy who are seemingly gaining benefits from CBD has played its part.

But it’s the United States that’s really leading the charge in this area. California was the first state to legalise cannabis for medicinal use in 1996 under the Compassionate Use Act, and this kick-started a wave of legalisation across many other states. The drug is mostly being sold for people to smoke, but edible cannabis has become more and more popular – giving birth to a new, exploding food industry.

Is the future of CBD in drinks?

If we’re looking to America to predict the way the market goes here, then the future is in drinks. In the United States, money from multinational companies is pouring into cannabis infused alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Even well known, worldwide brands like Coca Cola and Pepsi are considering moving into cannabis and investing billions of dollars into the development of CBD products.

Is CBD here to stay?

At the moment CBD isn’t regulated, so you aren’t necessarily getting what is considered a functional amount of CBD in your product. Manufacturers can put a couple of drops in a bar of chocolate and charge ten pounds for it, without proving there is any benefit or effect at all. Also, the safety of CBD is currently being reviewed by the Food Standards Agency. At the moment manufacturers do not have to prove that the CBD their product contains is safe. If this changes, as it may soon do, it will pose a large challenge to producers and retailers of CBD products.

However, CBD doesn’t appear to be ‘just a phase’ and however its regulation evolves it looks set to stay on our shelves. The market is growing at an extraordinary rate, with some estimates putting the potential CBD market at around two billion Euros a year. So although you might not see cannabis-infused products on every street corner just yet, you may not find that you have to look too far for too much longer.

 

Source: BBC 

 

The vaping deaths backlash is in danger of doing more harm than good

A rash of vaping-related lung illnesses has pushed states and countries to ban e-cigarettes. But critics worry that the response might end up leaving people in harm’s way.

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In a little over a decade, e-cigarettes have risen from relative obscurity to become devices used by 41 million people globally. Juul alone – the most popular e-cigarette brand in the US – was valued at $38 billion (£30bn) when the tobacco firm Altria snapped up 35 per cent of the company in December 2018.

Now vaping’s stratospheric rise appears to be stalling. After a rash of vaping-related lung diseases in the US, states are starting to clamp down on the devices. On September 24, the governor of Massachusetts announced a four-month ban on the sale of all vaping products. In California, the Department of Public Health urged citizens to stop vaping until investigations into the mysterious disease are complete. New York, Michigan and Rhode Island all responded by banning the sale of flavoured e-cigarettes, pre-empting similar regulations being considered at a federal level by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Globally, the vaping backlash is also gaining traction. In September, the Indian cabinet announced a ban on the production, import and sale of vapes, joining Singapore and Thailand where vaping is also banned. After banning the sale of flavoured oil cartridges, Israel is also considering a total ban on e-cigarettes.

But the vaping ban might end up causing more harm than good. Critics of the recent vaping backlash say that it may squander the opportunity for more useful long term anti-tobacco regulation or make smokers less likely to quit cigarettes altogether.

“The US has a dominant position, particularly in tobacco control, which means that other countries will pick up ideas from the US and do the same,” says Deborah Arnott, chief executive of the charity Action on Smoking and Health. Most of the restrictions in the US so far have either concentrated on flavoured e-cigarette pods or lumped all e-cigarettes together.

Neither approach seems to address the suspected cause behind the recent cases of lung illness. Of the total 805 cases of lung injury and 12 deaths reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it looks like the majority occurred in people who vaped e-cigarettes containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – the principal psychoactive ingredient in cannabis.

Out of those 805 patients, the CDC has data on vaping use from 514. Some 77 per cent of those patients reported using THC-containing products in the month before the onset of their symptoms, with 36 per cent of them saying they only vaped THC-containing before they got ill.

And these percentages might be underestimates says Eric Lindblom, a former FDA tobacco control official now at Georgetown Law’s O’Neill Institute. Of the four states with the highest number of reported cases – California, Texas, Wisconsin and Illinois – only one (California) has currently legalised recreational cannabis use. Patients in states where cannabis is illegal might be less willing to admit that they had been vaping THC.

Despite the evidence strongly hinting that vapes containing THC are at least partly responsible for this outbreak of lung illness, no state has brought out specific regulation targeting THC vapes. “It seems kind of backwards given that the problem is clearly much more closely linked to vaping cannabis THC products,” says Lindblom. “It totally doesn’t address the mystery illness in any way.”

So what are lawmakers responding to? It could be that the recent spate of lung illnesses has provided a flashpoint for frustrations over another big problem with vaping: the number of young e-cigarette users in the US. In 2018 an FDA survey found that over 20 per cent of US high school students – just over three million young people – were e-cigarette users. The same survey identified flavoured e-cigarettes as a factor that attracted young vapers to e-cigarettes.

That might explain why so much of the vaping backlash has centred on flavoured e-cigarette products. But Arnott warns that banning flavoured pods altogether might put people off quitting smoking. “What we don’t want it for people to be scared back to smoking or for smokers – who are often looking for a reason not to quit – to think ‘oh well, I might as well carry on with smoking’,” she says.

In the US, cigarette smoking is still responsible for more than 480,000 deaths every year, but Arnott is worried that the backlash against vaping might make people misunderstand the difference in risk between cigarettes and vapes.

“The relative risk compared to smoking is the initial thing to be concerned about, but if people are going to carry on vaping for the long term then you need to worry about what the long term impacts might be and whether it would be better for them to quit vaping as well,” she says. Public Health England has backed e-cigarettes as a way of getting people to quit smoking, saying that vaping is 95 per cent less harmful than smoking cigarettes, although e-cigarettes are not prescribed by the NHS as a stop-smoking tool.

Europe appears to have avoided the outbreak of vaping-related lung illness, which might be thanks to tighter EU regulations that restrict the makeup and marketing of vapes. In the US, e-cigarettes have been largely escaped regulation, although after May 2020 vaping firms will have to be approved by the FDA in order to be sold within the country.

But if it’s approached in the right way, the rash of vaping illness could be an opportunity for useful regulation to be passed, says Lindblom. “The only time that it really happens is when there’s an emergency,” he says. As well as only allowing e-cigarettes that had been proven to have a net benefit to public health, the backlash could provide an opportunity to re-examine regulation of menthol cigarettes, which are often a gateway into smoking for young people. Menthol cigarettes are already illegal in Canada and in the EU they will be banned from May 2020.

Whatever happens, Lindblom and Arnott agree that regulators should be looking for ways to reduce the total number of smokers. That might mean encouraging people to switch to e-cigarettes, but it also shouldn’t preclude tighter regulation of conventional cigarettes, Lindblom says. “You want a system where people are thinking about this thing in a smart way instead of just throwing out the baby with the bathwater.”

By MATT REYNOLDS

Source: Wired

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